22. Crime

Crime is an anti-social behaviour for which society lays down punishment. The activity for which the punishment is attached may be sinful but would not be criminal.DefinitionsThe definition of crime is summarised from two point of views:i. Social points of viewii. Legal point of viewSocial point of view : As perC. Darrow “Crime is an …

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21. Marriage

The mutual attraction of male and female is a biological and psychological incident whenever the male and female came in the contact of each other it led to some specific activities such as talking, walking, and having entertainment with each other. But this type of relationship is not marriage.DefinitionsAccording to Wester Marck, “As a relation …

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20. Family

What is family? If we want to know this than it is necessary to know various definition given by many philosophers and psychologists.DefinitionsAccording to Beisnz, “The family may be described as a weapon with a child, and a man to look after them.” Generally some people clarifies the word family to mean a wife but …

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19. pragmatism

One of the most important schools of philosophy of education is pragmatism. It is also as old as idealism, naturalism and realism since it is more an attitude, than a philosophy. In the fifth century B.C. Heraclitus said, “One cannot step twice into the same river”. Thus Reality is a flux, things are ever changing. …

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18. Existentialism

Ever since the inception of reflective thought, the problem of Being and Existence has loomed large in the minds of philosophers saints and seers. In ancient Upanishads we find direct reference to this question in the form of an inquiry into the element in man which survives death and destruction, that is, which is unaffected …

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17. Idealism

Idealism is one of the oldest schools of thoughts in the world of philosophy, originating in human nature itself, continuing from the primitive man to his present counterpart in some modified from or the other. From the idealistic standpoint it has overtones of spirituality since it believes that the ultimate existing element is spiritual in …

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16. Realism

Realism is the theory that holds that the existence of objects is real. For this reason it is also sometimes called objectivism. Both realism and objectivism are metaphysical theories concerned with the existence of things. In epistemology realism holds that in the process of knowledge things are independent of the existence and influence of the …

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15. naturalism

The discoveries in physics and other physical sciences in out age have proved that a materialistic explanation of the world is far from being adequate. In the field of physics recent discoveries have rejected the concept of matter altogether. There is nothing like material substance in this world. On the other hand, the modern scientists …

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14. Humanism

Every philosophy holds some particular concepts in metaphysics, epistemology and axiology. As the philosophy differs so do its conceptions in these fields. According to humanism, man is the essence of reality. There is no other super human ontological reality beyond him. His is the proper object of knowledge and whatever human faculties help us in …

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13. Secularism

The word ‘secularism’ was first used in the 19th century by George Jacob Holydake. He derived it from the Latin word ‘Seculum’ meaning “this present age.” He used it in the context of social and ethical values or systems. Thus, secularism came to be known as a social and ethical system. The following principles were …

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12. Communism

According to Websters New World Dictionary, Communism means : “It is theory or system based on the ownership of all property by the community as a whole.”From this definition of communism its following characteristics may be derived.Communism is a theory based on community ownership of property. Therefore, it is against the capitalist system of individual …

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11. Marxism

Marxism has been regarded as a body of social doctrine worked out by Karl Marx (1818-1883), a revolutionary author, thinker philosopher of his age. He was assisted by his colleague and friend Frederick Engles.Main characteristicsFollowing are the main characteristics of Marxism :Revolutionary programmeIn the contemporary world, Marxism makes its claims as a scientific philosophy, revolutionary …

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10. Fascism

Derived from the Lain word Fascio (a bundle of wood), fascism express unity, discipline and strength. This term was applied to the regimes of Mussolini and Hitler which were established in 1922 and 1933 in Italy and Germany respectively. Aggressive nationalist, undemocratic, communal, anti-communist regimes, movements and parties are usually called fascist. Fascism is a …

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8. Value of philosophy

Philosophy influence both the personal and social aspects of human life. Most of the Western philosophers have considered the goal of philosophy to be the achievement of knowledge, but the aim of philosophy is not merely intellectual. It is true that philosophy gives us knowledge but, as Sri Aurobindo has pointed out, “Still the truth …

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