21. Marriage

The mutual attraction of male and female is a biological and psychological incident whenever the male and female came in the contact of each other it led to some specific activities such as talking, walking, and having entertainment with each other. But this type of relationship is not marriage.
According to Wester Marck, “As a relation of one or more men or to one or more woman which is recognised by custom or law, and involves certain rights duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children from it.”
In the opinion of Jacobs and Stern, “Marriage is a term for social relationship of husband and wife or of plural mates; also used for the ceremony of uniting marital partners.” According to this definition marriage is a bound which unites the male and woman in the form of husband and wife.
Majumdar D.N. and T.N. Madan says, “It involves the social sanction generally in the form of civil and religious ceremony authorising two persons of opposite sexes to engage in sexual and other relationships with one another.” This definition points out these features :
1. It is a result of social and religious function.
2. It is a means of contract of persons of opposite sex.
3. In it man and woman get the right of relationship in social, economic and biological environment.
Progress of the institution of marriage
According to Social history and sociologist the institutions of marriage in our society gradually developed from its standing to present position. According to the Anthropologist Lewis Morgan, “One finds exchange of wives, giving wives on loan and other such customs in ancient tribes which had no institution of marriage. There was no restriction upon sex relationship. The father was not much important in the family and most of the progeny was known by the mother.”
Consanguineous Marriage : This was the first stage in the marriage institution. In it there was the tendency of marriage between blood groups.
Group Marriage : In this stage several man married several woman as a group but sexual relationships were not defined. There was boundation on sex relation with person of other group.
Syndesmian Marriage : In this stage paring of the men and women which is temporary and not bound by any rules and regulations. This could be broken by only desire of anyone.
Patriarchal Marriage : In this stage a male could marry several females who lived separately from each other. Hypergamy and polygamy custom were belong to this stage.
Monogamy : The Institute of marriage, in most civilised societies reached the stage of present monogamy marriage. In it, one male married with one female at a time in religious environment and in presence of their family members and lived with her until religious or legal separation.

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