Why do some people have dark skin and other people have light skin?

The colour of the skin and hair of a human being is decided by a pigment called ‘melanin’. In the early ages, all ancient human beings were the same colour but with the increase in population, they started spreading out all over the world. Those who lived near the equator were exposed to the sun’s UV rays for extended periods of time. The UV light damaged the DNA within the cells. Eventually with cell mutations, there began the production of melanin. The type and amount of melanin decides the colour of the skin, making it lighter or darker.

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