The term ‘Silicon Valley’ refers to the Santa Clara Valley in California. It is considered to be centred around the city of San Jose in Santa Clara County. First called ‘Silicon Valley’ in 1971 by a local newsletter writer, Donald C Hoefler, the ‘Valley’ became the centre of newly developing technologies. Silicon Valley is famous as the birthplace of silicon-based transistors. William Shockley, an English-born physicist worked on the early concepts of the transistor at Bell Laboratories before World War II. A vast area makes up Silicon Valley which has 30 cities and 5 universities.