The liver is the largest gland in the body, divided into two main lobes, the right and the left. It secretes bile into the small intestine. It is the largest chemical factory that carries out most of the intermediate metabolic functions. For example: (1) it breaks down and builds up new biological molecules, stores vitamins and ions, destroys old blood cells and other poisonous material (toxins); (2) it helps in the formation of urea, and prepares the fat for final breakdown; and (3) it plays an important role in the body’s immunity and temperature regulation.
The gall bladder looks like a pear fruit. It lies under the liver, on the right side of the abdomen. The gall bladder stores the bile produced by the liver and concentrates it further. The stored bile is released into the duodenum by the contraction of the gall bladder, half an hour after the consumption of food. It is an important part of the body, crucial for the digestion of fat, as it stores bile.
The pancreas is a compound gland, very similar to the salivary gland. It extends from the duodenum to the spleen. The pancreas has three parts, the head, the body and the tail. It is a dual organ. (1) it forms pancreatic juices that contain enzymes and electrolytes. When chyme enters the duodenum, pancreatic juice is released into the duodenum by the pancreas. (2) it acts as an endocrine organ, as it manages the secretion of insulin and glucagon (important hormone for sugar level regulation) in the body.