39. Evolution

Autotroph : It is defined as an organism that can make organic molecules from inorganic nutrients.Continent Drift : The drift of continents with respect to one another over the plates in the earth’s interior.Extinction : Disappearence of species from the earth is called extinction, e.g. Dodo became extinct from Mauritius.Fossil : The remains of ancient …

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38. Environment & Pollution

The world in which we live constitute our environment. High population and industrialisation has polluted the environment and has caused many problems. This chapter describes environment and its pollution.Environment : The physical and biological world where we live is called our environment. It has three components : (i) Physical surroundings (ii) Living organisms (iii) Meteorological …

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37. Forest Conservation

Forest : A forest is a biotic community having trees, shrubs and any other woody vegetations usually with a closed canopy.Economic importance of Forests1. Forests conserve fertility of the soil, 2. Cause rains, 3. Give wood, paper, medicines, rubber, resins, gums, shellac, natural dyes, lac, honey, wax, cork, 4. Provide fuel wood, 5. Provide shelter …

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36. Biotechnology

Biotechnology : It is an important branch of biology which makes use of the knowledge of biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, and genetic engineering for the benefit of the mankind.The word, Biotechnology, was used for the first time in the Leeds Council in United Nations in 1920.The results of biotechnology were used for the first time …

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35. Movements

What makes the movement of plants is discussed in this chapter.Conditions necessary for Plant Movements1. Water : Proper water supply is essential for certain kind of movements.2. Temperature : Movement of plants can take place within a certain range of temperature only.3. Oxygen : The energy produced during respiration due to oxygen, makes the plants …

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33. Photosynthesis

Significance of Photosynthesis : It is a physico-bio chemical process of the world which is responsible for existence of life on the earth.Photosynthesis : Plants with chlorophyll convert the solar energy into chemical energy. Plants synthesise carbohydrates using raw materials got from the surroundings. They store that chemical in the form of potential energy in …

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32. Enzymes

Catalysis : Some chemicals alter the rate of chemical reaction without undergoing any change, usually hasten the rate of reaction, such substances are known as catalysts and the phenomenon is known as catalysis.Enzymes : We may call enzymes as organic catalysts. Enzymes increase the rate and efficiency of biochemical reactions in cells.Simple Enzyme : Enzymes …

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31. Fertilizers and pesticides

Fertilizers are those chemicals which improve the fertility of the soil and increase crop productivity. Chemical fertilizers played an important role in ‘Green Revolution’ in multiplying crop productivity to several times. Large scale use of chemical fertilizers has resulted into several evil effects such as the loss of soil fertility, environmental pollution, and persistence of …

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30. Respiration

Respiration is the process of oxidative breakdown of organic materials with the release of energy and change of Potential Energy into Kinetic Energy.Respiration is a catabolic process as the breakdown of cellular substances with the liberation of energy takes place.Respiratory Substrate : Respiratory substrate is the protoplasmic materials which on oxidation liberates energy. Glucose is …

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29. Mineral Nutrition

Plants need both, inorganic as well as organic matter, for their nutrition. This is called mineral nutrition. They get inorganic matter from outside and organic matter they synthesize for themselves.If the elements needed by a plant are not received by it, it can not complete its life cycle. Elements help in the metabolic activity of …

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27. Economic Botany

Economic botany deals with the importance of botany.The primary needs of human beings are food, shelter and clothing; and all the three are supplied by plants. Different plants yield food, fibres, oil, wood, vegetables, rubber, drugs, fruits, latex, spices, beverages, gums, tannins, dyes, etc. Economically important plants can be classified into the following types—Medicinal plants …

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