Histology deals with the study of minute structural details starting from tissue level to organ level.Different organs which are studied in histology are :Alimentary canalThis is also called digestive organ. It starts with the mouth and ends into the anus. It is composed of five basic layers.1. Seroaus membrane2. Muscular layer3. Sub-mucose4. Muscularis Nucosae5. Mucosa1. …

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Tissue : Group of cells having similar structure and function is called tissue. In general tissue forming cells have common origin.General Features of TissuesIn a tissue cells remain together by a non-living intercellular substance.1. Intercellular substance is jelly-like.2. The tensile strength of tissues is due to collagen fibers.3. A substance found in space is called …

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3. All About the cell

The cell is the basic unit of the structure of all living beings.The study concerning cell is known as cell biology.All living beings-animals and plants are composed of cells.The cells play a similar role in body building as the bricks play in the construction of a building or atoms play in the structure of matter.HistoryVan …

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44 Secularism in India

The culture of a country is the accumulated intellectual, emotional and spiritual wealth of that nation. Our is a secular country. People of different religions, cultures, castes, sects and creeds live in India. All people have the freedom to practice the religion on their own choice, without any interference from state. Thus there is lot …

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43 Custom culture

When certain act is repeated we call it a habit. In case the society follows a certain mode of life or repeates the act at the same time thinks it proper it do it repetedly we call it custom.In other words it may be called a long habitual and generally observed course of counduct of …

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42 Joint family

Family, does not consist of a man alone. The family is a biological phenomena based on sex and parental functions. In every known human society, however the family is elaboratd into a cultural organisation, that it is surrounded by rules and rituals. The family is the first and most fundamental of all human associations and …

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39 Class consciousness

Now we consider the conditions which lead to make members of a class consicious of their membership.Social MobilityClass consists in the realisation of a similarity of attitude and behaviour with members of one’s own class, and of a difference from members of other class. It is to see that if the movement up and down …

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37 Caste ranking

From time immemorial all castes have not been treated equal in rank and status. In the hierarchical ladder the Brahmins have always been considered and placed at the top. All other sections and castes in the society have been asked to respect Brahmins. Even in the olden days when Kshatriyas ruled the country, in Royal …

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32 The status of women

The position of women may be defined with reference to the personal rights she enjoys in society as compared to personal rights which, women’s counterpart enjoys in any given society. The status may also be defined with reference to be relative advantage one enjoys in matter of exercising authority and in initiating action.In we bear …

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30 The caste system

All types of societies and races have some sort of functional social stratification. The only difference is that in most cases it remains in an elementary from and elastic. The peculiar feature of the Indian caste system is that in India the aforesaid process has crystalized into watertight compartments. And it has become permanent feature …

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27 Freedom Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi

The development of the Congress during this period may conveniently be divided into several periods.Civil Disobedience MovementThe Congress at its Calcutta session in 1928 wanted to pass a resolution declaring complete independence as its goal. Mahatma Gandhi intervened and a resolution was passed declaring Dominion Status as the goal. Mahatma Gandhi gave an assurance that …

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24 Religion

The life of early man was taken with hazards, irregulations and perplexities. Even now with all our understanding and scientific achievement, life runs an uncertain course. There are no hostile animals to fear but epidemics still sweep across the land taking a heavy tool to life. Accidents take place leading to mutilation and suffering. One …

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22 Social control

There are several devices of social control. Social order is not possible without the sanction of law. The physical scientist is interested in the ntural laws and a sociologist is also a social scientist and he studies those laws which are manifested by the behaviour of human beings.The main forms of social control are as …

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21 Concepts of social change

There are various stages through which the economic organization of society has passed since the earliest times.Economic organization of the societyThey are (i) Hunting and fishing state; (ii) Pectoral stage; (iii) The agriculture stage; (iv) The handicraft or commercial stage and (v) Industrial stage.The Hunting and Fishing StageIn early times, men used to support their …

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